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F. -qur-l-cur-) is not a primary Suff. g. tap-, tapig-, tapgur-. , meant 'to do (something) together (with a Plur. Subject); to do (something) in every part (with a Sing. Subject); to do (something) to one another (with a Plur. ). N. See Knf. , 225; common. g. tute: -,tutuz-)l-duz-/-diiz-/-&zI-guz- form Caus. V s ; obviousIy cognate to -ur-, etc. (cf. -siz, -sirs:-); acc. to Kaj. ; see also 11164; all rare in the early period; became commoner, and in some languages almost standard, in the later period.

XI 6:dl: ne:gni: 'he understood (fafina) the matter, nftcr he had thought (tafakkara) about it' Kaf. e. d e k s ] , close the door (on it)' 4560. 3 ayags:z ulu/) kiqlg can hardly mean 'neither honourable nor clishonourablc, great and small', and this must be a rather unusual use of I a p 'very honourable, very dishonourable': Xak. X I a p a word taking the place of ld, 'not', as in a p bu: a p 01 'neither this nor that' Koy. )a p yerne k l n i 01 a p y e m e y a r u k b% 'neither is he upright nor is [his] writing clear'; y e t m e s a n l a r k a ziyHn a p y e m e a81g 'no harm nor advantage comes to them' Tef.

In -me:k suggest that at any rate in Xak. (there is no trace of these words elsewhere) thcrc may have hecn an alternative form with n fnmt vowel with the attenuated ~neaninl:'to sip', whicli Ii:ls a sligl~tsemantic connection with lip- 'to kiss'. Survives in NE T o b . u p - R I 1780: NC K z x . o p - Slrnit. 153; N W I < x . 'F. o p - Kocu. 240; Kax. u p R 1 1 7 8 0 : S W Anat. u p - S D D 1419. T u r k i i vlrr tf. by. I11r. 1-3 ( E T Y I1 178): X a k . xr e r su:v o : p d ~ : 'the man swallowcd ('ahbo) the water' Kaj.

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