By T. Padmanabhan
The evolution of our Universe and the formation of stars and galaxies are mysteries that experience lengthy wondered scientists. contemporary years have introduced new medical figuring out of those profound and basic matters. In energetic prose, Professor Padmanabhan paints an image of latest cosmology for the overall reader. not like different renowned books on cosmology, After the 1st 3 mins doesn't gloss over information, or draw back from explaining the underlying options. as a substitute, with a lucid and casual kind, the writer introduces all of the correct historical past after which conscientiously items jointly an interesting tale of the evolution of our Universe. Padmanabhan leaves the reader with a cutting-edge photograph of scientists' present realizing in cosmology and a willing style of the thrill of this fast-moving technological know-how. all through, no arithmetic is used and all technical jargon is obviously brought and bolstered in a convenient thesaurus on the finish of the e-book. For basic readers who are looking to come to grips with what we actually do and do not learn about our Universe, this e-book offers an exhilarating and uncompromising learn. Thanu Padmanabhan is a Professor at Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics in Pune, India. he's the recipient of various awards and writer of 3 books, constitution Formation within the Universe (Cambridge, 1994), Cosmology and Astrophysics via difficulties (Cambridge, 1996), and, including J.V. Narlikar, Gravity, Gauge Theories and Quantum Cosmology. he's additionally the writer of a couple of hundred well known technology articles, a comic book strip serial and several other standard columns on astronomy, leisure arithmetic, and the heritage of technological know-how.
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Extra info for After the First Three Minutes: The Story of Our Universe
17 2 Matter, radiation and forces The situation here is quite similar to what we did in the case of the hydrogen molecule or hydrogen atom. By colliding two molecules or two atoms with sufficiently high speeds, we could supply enough energy to overcome the molecular or atomic binding. Similarly, by colliding two nuclei together at very high speed we can provide the necessary energy to overcome the nuclear binding. In such - sufficiently energetic - collisions we can actually split the nucleus of an atom.
Other photons like 2, 3 and 4 pass through the hydrogen atom unhindered. 4 eV. 4 eV. We have thus separated the electron from the proton in the hydrogen atom and converted matter from the gaseous state to the plasma state. This process of ionizing the atom (that is, dissociating the atom into an electron and a positively charged ion) is called 'photo-ionization'. ) The same principle also works in the case of other systems like heavier atoms, molecules, etc. All of them can be ionized by sufficiently high energy photons.
The strong force between two quarks, say, is caused by the exchange of a vector boson called the gluon. The weak force is similarly caused by the exchange of three vector bosons called the Zboson, w+ boson and w- boson. It is believed that the gravitational force is similarly due to the exchange of a particle called the graviton. thought of as arising due to the exchange of photons. Other forces of interaction are mediated by some other vector bosons. 7). The gravitational interaction is thought to arise out of certain particles called gravitons.