Download Advanced renewable energy sources. Part - I by S C Bhatia PDF

By S C Bhatia

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In addition to electricity, fuel cells produce water, heat and, depending on the fuel source, very small amounts of nitrogen dioxide and other emissions. The energy efficiency of a fuel cell is generally between 40–60 per cent or up to 85 per cent efficient if waste heat is captured for use. Fuel cells come in many varieties; however, they all work in the same general manner. They are made up of three segments which are sandwiched together: the anode, the electrolyte, and the cathode. Two chemical reactions occur at the interfaces of the three different segments.

Mass transport loss (depletion of reactants at catalyst sites under high loads, causing rapid loss of voltage). To deliver the desired amount of energy, the fuel cells can be combined in series and parallel circuits, where series yields higher voltage, and parallel allows a higher current to be supplied. Such a design is called a fuel cell stack. The cell surface area can be increased, to allow stronger current from each cell. 15 Renewable sources Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished).

2. Direct competition with land use for food production and water use. As this decreases food supply, the price of food increases worldwide. 3. Current production methods would require enormous amounts of land to replace all gasoline and diesel. 2 Geothermal energy Geothermal energy harnesses the heat energy present underneath the earth. Two wells are drilled. One well injects water into the ground to provide water. The hot rocks heat the water to produce steam. The steam that shoots back up the other hole(s) is purified and is used to drive turbines, which power electric generators.

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